To verify the accuracy of the method, several artefacts that were datable by other techniques were tested; the results of the testing were in reasonable agreement with the true ages of the objects.
About 90% of all plant life uses the C3 process; the remaining plants either use C4 or are CAM plants, which can use either C3 or C4 depending on the environmental conditions.
Both the C3 and C4 photosynthesis pathways show a preference for lighter carbon, with radiation are similar to measurements for the rest of the biosphere.
Photosynthesis is the primary process by which carbon moves from the atmosphere into living things.
Two different photosynthetic processes exist: the C3 pathway and the C4 pathway.
The deepest parts of the ocean mix very slowly with the surface waters, and the mixing is known to be uneven.
The main mechanism that brings deep water to the surface is upwelling.A secondary oscillation is thought to be caused by variations in sunspot activity, which has two separate periods: a longer-term, 200-year oscillation, and a shorter 11-year cycle.Sunspots cause changes in the solar system's magnetic field and corresponding changes to the cosmic ray flux, and hence to the production of production: geomagnetic reversals and polarity excursions.First, there is a long-term oscillation with a period of about 9,000 years, which causes radiocarbon dates to be older than true dates for the last 2,000 years and too young before that.The known fluctuations in the strength of the earth's magnetic field match up quite well with this oscillation: cosmic rays are deflected by magnetic fields, so when there is a weaker magnetic field, more production and an older apparent age.Upwelling mixes this "old" water with the surface water, giving the surface water an apparent age of about several hundred years (after correcting for fractionation).