They comprise numerous ephemeral kings reigning from Memphis over a possibly divided Egypt and, in any case, holding only limited power owing to the effectively feudal system into which the administration had evolved.The list below is based on the Abydos King List dating to the reign of Seti I and taken from Jürgen von Beckerath's Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen The Eleventh Dynasty was a local group with roots in Upper Egypt that ruled from 2134 to 1991 BC.
Around 2055 BC, Mentuhotep II, the son and successor of pharaoh Intef III defeated the Herakleopolitan pharaohs and reunited the Two Lands, thereby starting the Middle Kingdom.
The Seventh and Eighth Dynasties ruled for approximately 20–45 years.
Some scholars believe that he was buried in the Red Pyramid.
Long time it was thought that the Meidum Pyramid was not Snofru's work, but that of king Huni. Khufu is depicted as a cruel tyrant by ancient Greek authors, Ancient Egyptian sources however describe him as a generous and pious ruler.
The following ancient king lists are known (along with the dynasty under which they were created)): Used a Seth-animal above his serekh rather than an Horus falcon.
He promoted the sun-cult in Egypt and reduced the powers of officials, nomarchs and palatines. Possibly built an unfinished step pyramid and several cultic pyramids throughout Egypt.
The 11th dynasty originated from a dynasty of Theban nomarchs serving kings of the 8th, 9th or 10th dynasty.
The Middle Kingdom (2060–1802 BC) is the period from the end of the First Intermediate Period to the beginning of the Second Intermediate Period.
Ancient Egyptian documents describe Snofru as a pious, generous and even accostable ruler. He is the main protagonist of the famous Westcar Papyrus. Some scholars prefer him as the creator of the Great Sphinx before Djedefra.
The first imprinted papyri originate from Khufu's reign, which may have made ancient Greek authors believe that Khufu wrote books in attempt to praise the gods. Some scholars believe he created the Great Sphinx of Giza as a monument for his deceased father. However, this pyramid is no longer intact as it is believed the Romans recycled the materials it was made from. Ancient Greek authors describe Khafra as likewise cruel as Khufu.
Concerning ancient sources, Egyptologists and Historians alike call for caution about the credibility, exactitude and completeness of these sources, many of which were written long after the reigns they report.