Most of the forests have been cleared for cultivation, fuel, construction and ship building so that by 2007, only about 9 percent of the total surface is wooded—in east and north of Scotland and in southeast England.Oak, ash and beech are the most common trees in England, while pine and birch are predominate in Scotland.
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Northern Ireland, making up the north-eastern part of Ireland, is mostly hilly.
The climate is generally temperate, though significantly warmer than some other locations at similar latitude, such as central Poland, due to the warming influence of the Gulf Stream. The prevailing winds are south-westerly, from the North Atlantic Current. There can be strong winds and floods, especially in winter.
Agriculture is intensive, highly mechanized, and efficient by European standards, producing about 60 percent of food needs with only one percent of the labor force. Around two thirds of production is devoted to livestock, and one third to arable crops.
The UK has large reserves of coal, natural gas, and oil, as well as limestone, chalk, gypsum, silica, rock salt, china clay, iron ore, tin, silver, gold and lead. The United Kingdom is reducing greenhouse gas emissions.
Heather, grasses, gorse, and bracken are found on the moorlands.
Wolves, bears, boars, and reindeer are extinct, but red and roe deer are protected for sport.
Most of England consists of rolling lowland terrain, with some mountainous terrain in the northwest (Cambrian Mountains of the Lake District) and north (the upland moors of the Pennines) and limestone hills of the Peak District.
Scotland's geography is varied, with lowlands in the south and east and highlands in the north and west, including Ben Nevis, the highest mountain in the British Isles at 4,409 ft (1,344 meters).
There are many long and deep-sea arms, firths, and lochs.